Sources of Chillies in India Production areas

Sources of Chillies

Chillies are the dried ripe red fruits of the genus capsicum. The two well-known species are Capsicum annum L. and Capsicum frutenscens L. Pungency and color are the two main quality attributes in chilies. The red color of chilies is due to the presence of carotenoid pigments like capsanthin, (major pigment, 35%) capsorubin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, β-carotene etc. These pigments are present in chilies mainly in the esterified form, and to a small extent in non-esterified forms.

India is world’s largest producer and consumer of spices and chilli. A huge amount of spices is also exported all over the world. Chilly is available in throughout India. It is one of the abundantly domestically used as well as commercially used spices. The chilli has innumerable uses for commercial, nutritional as well as medicinal. It is used for preparation of oleoresin that has great export potential and demand in the world market. In addition, it is medically used as pain killer, Antibiotic as well as included in Ayurvedic medicines.

Chilli was introduced in India by the great Portuguese explorer Vasco-da-Gama. The spice chilli blended well in Indian cooking. Chilli became extremely popular in India. The climate in India was favorable to cultivate chillies and soon many varieties of chilli were available in India. Places like Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Kashmir became famous for different varieties in chilli. Varieties of chilli grown in India are

Naga Jolokia
Birdseye or Dhani Chillies
Byadagi or Kaddi Chillies
Ellachipur Sanman Chillies
Guntur Sanman Chillies
Hindpur Chillies
Jwala Chillies
Kanthari Chillies
Kashmiri Mirch
Mundu Chillies or Gundu Molzuka
Nalcheti Chillies
Tomato Chilli or Warangal Chappatta

Production areas:

Andhra Pradesh stands first in the list of chilli-producing states in India and also has the maximum acreage under chilli cultivation in the country with a production of around 2.7 lakh tonnes of chillies. Karnataka follows Andhra Pradesh, contributing 14 percent of the country’s production.The major producers are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,Orissa, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh alone commands around 55.77% of the chilli production in India. The major chilly growing districts of Andhra Pradesh are Guntur, Warangal, Khammam, in Karnataka Raichur, Bellary, Byadgi and dharwad region are the major spot markets and the production centers.

Chilli peppers are typically produced on small farms, less than 1 ha in size, in areas where cheap labour is available for harvesting. The largest producer is India, with an estimated 894,000 ha devoted to the crop annually. India is the largest exporter of dried chilli in the world. The second-largest producer is China, which grows an estimated 216,000 ha annually and also exports sizeable quantities of dried chilli. Its production level covers around 1.1 million tonnes annually. It is cultivated in all the states and union territories of the country.

Table.3.1 (a) Major chilli growing tracts of the country

State
Major chilli growing tracts
Andhra Pradesh
Guntur, Warangal, Khammam, Prakasam, Krishna, Hyderabad, Nizamabad, Cuddapah, Rajamundry and Nellore.
Karnataka
Dharwad, Mysore, Hassan, Bangalore, Bellary, Ranibennur, Hubli, Gadag and Byadgi.
Maharashtra
Nagpur, Nasik, Ahmednagar, Solapur, Aurangabad, Nanded, Amravati.
Punjab
Amristar, Nabha, Patiala.
Uttar Pradesh
Bareily and Khurja.
Tamilnadu
Coimbatore, Ramanathapuram, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli, Virudunagar, Kanayakumari, Madurai, Salem, Tiruchi, Villupuram and Cuddalore districts.
West Bengal
Murshidabad, South & North 24 Parganas, Nadia, Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, East & West Midnapore districts.

AREA OF PRODUCTION

Table 3.1(b). State wise Area and Production of chilli in India

Name of the State
Area (ha)
Production (t)
Andhra Pradesh
171450
537710
Andaman & Nicobar
388
878
Arunachal Pradesh
2168
2646
Assam
14690
9490
Bihar
3093
3089
Chattisgarh
6510
3600
Gujarat
31650
37840
Himachal Pradesh
740
200
Jammu & Kashmir
996
1006
Karnataka
69880
94500
Kerala
1192
Madhya Pradesh
46660
42480
Maharashtra
99300
51214
Manipur
6490
3890
Meghalaya
600
3000
Mizoram
1400
1190
Nagaland
600
3000
Orissa
75120
63290
Punjab
9882
15888
Rajasthan
17720
17530
Tamilnadu
49033
31830
Tripura
1940
2910
Uttar Pradesh
17340
16119
Uttarakhand
2006
4262
West Bengal
51957
60727
Total
681613
1009481

Production rate:

As per the latest statistics, India produced 800,100 tonnes of dry chilli from an area of 930,000 hectares.Guntur is Asia’s largest market for chillies.About 80 lakhs to one corer bags of chillies , weighing approximately 35 to 50 kgs is traded during the season at Guntur market

Table : 3.1 (c) . Production of Chillies

Year
Area (hectares)
Production (tons)
1999-00
977530
1056000
2000-01
884040
1046220
2001-02
881290
1113090
2002-03
827930
849250
2003-04
794080
1273860
2004-05
771240
1237781
2005-06
681612
1009481

Table : 3.1 (d). India Chilli Exports

Year
Quantity (tons)
Value (Rs cr)
1999-00
63591
254.72
2000-01
62448
229.73
2001-02
69998
252.44
2002-03
81022
315.15
2003-04
86575
366.88
2004-05
138073
499.01
2005-06
113174
403.01
2006-07
148500
807.75